Long Division, Part 3

I ended part two of this series with an open question:

And of course I can’t help but wonder if the CLR is compiled with Visual C++, so doing arithmetic on 64-bit numbers in C# and other .NET languages ends up at the same runtime functions?

I don’t have a lot of experience in debugging the CLR myself, so I asked Brian Rasmussen if he might be interested in taking a look at it. He was kind enough to take the time to point me in the right direction.

A little digging showed that the CLR does in fact call some of these functions from the C runtime, but with a twist.
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Quoting Command-line Arguments

Raymond Chen recently blogged about the way CommandLineToArgvW treats quotes and backslashes. Parsing the command-line into argv[] is something I have had to fight with as well, so besides pointing to Raymond’s excellent post, I wanted to add a few comments of my own here.

We are examining how command-line arguments with spaces and quotes are handled. Part of the problem comes from the fact that DOS/Windows uses backslash as separator in paths. On systems like Unix, where forward slash is used instead, using backslash to escape special characters is less of a problem. But if you ever put a Windows path in a C string literal, you may have run into LTS — the situation where a string becomes unreadable due to escape characters.

Microsoft fixed this in C# with verbatim string literals. C# also implements a simpler method of escaping a quote inside a quoted string — doubling it — which is used in languages like Pascal and BASIC, and is what Raymond’s second hypothetical set of rules suggest.

The compromise we get for parsing command-line arguments in the C runtime library (and CommandLineToArgvW) is documented on MSDN. What the MSDN documentation does not tell you is that there is a second mechanism for inserting a literal quote in a quoted string — or at least there might be, depending on which version of the C runtime library.
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Long Division, Part 2

In part one I talked about the support functions in the C standard libraries of various x86 32-bit compilers that perform arithmetic operations when you use 64-bit integers in your code.

While updating WCRT to work with the latest Visual C++ compilers, I was writing my own implementations of these functions, and naturally I tested them against the versions supplied in the VC CRT to verify they worked.

To my surprise, I found the GCD test I wrote for Long Division ran faster when compiled with WCRT.

This naturally piqued my curiosity.
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Long Division

Integer types with at least 64 bits have been a part of the C standard for a while now (they were added in C99, and were a standard extension in many 32-bit compilers before that). But have you ever wondered what exactly happens when you use them?

Consider the following function (substitute long long with __int64 if you are using an older version of Visual C++):

let’s first have a look at what the VC 64-bit compiler gives us:

Pretty much what you would expect, a little setup and an idiv instruction to perform the division. Now let’s try the VC 32-bit compiler:

A little setup and .. a call?
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